Bio Pesticides

1). Tricha (Trichoderma harzianum 2% W.P.)

COMPOSITIONb : A Broad Spectrum Biological and Organic Fungicide & Growth Promoter produced in collaboration with National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-New Delhi), Lucknow.

ROLE OF TRICHA

Trichoderma harzianum in TRICHA is a saprophytic fungus that grows on dead organic matter and cell wall of pathogenic fungi. It secretes a range of extracellular compounds, which inhibit pathogens through antibiosis. TRICHA dissolves the cell wall of pathogenic fungi by secreting extracellular enzymes like celluloses, pectinases cutinases, endoglucanases, etc. These enzymes produced by T. harzianum help it dissolve the cell wall of pathogens. It also inactivates the enzymes produced by pathogens to invade plants. TRICHA contains live spores and chlamydospores or resting spores that germinate under favorable conditions and thus improves shelf-life. TRICHA increases uptake of nutrients and leads to higher physiological and metabolic activities. Thus it promotes increased and healthier root system of treated plants. It also induces systemic resistance in plants against foliar pathogens. As a result the crop grows vigorously to produce higher yields. TRICHA is suitable to control root rot, Pythium rot, Rhizoctonia rot, Fusarium wilt, Botrytis rot, and pathogens like Sclerotium, Sclerotinia, Ustilago. It controls color rot of groundnut; damping-off of cauliflower; wilt of cotton, sugarcane, chickpea, sunflower and cumin; seed rot of cotton; red rot of sugarcane; root rot of maize, etc.

SHELF LIFE: 1 Year
DIRECTIONS FOR USE:

Seed treatment: Prepare slurry by mixing 5 to 10 grams of TRICHA in 25 ml of water and use this to coat 1kg of seeds. The coated seeds are to be dried in shade for 30 minutes before sowing them in the field. Before transplanting: Mix well TRICHA at the rate of 10 grams per liter water and dip the roots of seedlings for 15-30 minutes before transplanting them in the field.

Nursery bed treatment: Mix well TRICHA in water at rate of 250 grams in 50 liters of water and soil drench to cover entirely the nursery area of 500 square meters (1.25 cents). Field soil application: Mix TRICHA 1 kg in 25 kg farm yard manure (FYM) and broadcast it in 4000 meters (one acre). If TRICHA mixture is incubated with FYM for 7-days in a cool place under shade and covered with a wet jute bag before broadcast application, the performance of TRICHA against plant pathogens and nematodes is improved dramatically.

Foliar application: Mix TRICHA 1 kg in 100 liters of water and spray the solution to cover the crop completely. Increase the spray volume depending on the crop canopy area and growth. Begin spray before the onset of disease and agitate sprayer frequently to keep the contents mixed. Vegetables, ornamentals, lawns and land scape: 2-3 applications and more 4-5 applications if required


2). Bash (Bacillus subtilis 2% W.P.)

A Broad Spectrum Biological and Organic Fungicide & Growth Promoter Produced in technical collaboration with National Research Development Corporation (CSIR-New Delhi), New Delhi.

ROLE OF BASH

Bacillus subtilis in BASH is a Gram positive bacterium commonly found in soil throughout the world. It is rod-shaped and has the ability to form a tough protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. The spores can survive the extreme heat and produce long-chain poly-saccharides. It can divide symmetrically to make two daughter cells (binary fission), or asymmetrically, producing a single endospore that is resistant to environmental factors such as heat, acid, and salt, and which can persist in the environment for long periods of time. BASH is used as soil inoculants in horticulture and agriculture. It has a natural fungicidal activity, and is an effective biological control agent. It produces antibiotics, and protease enzyme. It helps to inactivate enzymes produced by pathogens and prevent them from infecting plants. It also solubilizes inorganic plant nutrients in soil and makes them available to plants. B. subtilis in BASH when applied forms a symbiotic association with treated crop plants in the root zone area of the soil.
BASH is a broad spectrum biological and organic fungicide used for plant disease control. It produces lipo-peptides that work synergistically as antimicrobial compounds to destroy plant pathogens completely. As a biocontrol agent, it is effective against different soil-borne fungal diseases in vegetables, ornamental and agricultural plants. Stimulating factors for growth and phytosanitary activities of B. subtilis are well known even at higher temperatures. BASH exhibits high rhizosphere competence to utilize root exudates and nutrients in soil. Therefore, BASH effectively suppresses the growth of plant pathogens and stops any infection and helps farmers to harvest higher crop yields with improved quality. BASH can be used to control damping-off of tomato and brinjal, wilt of chillies, wilt and red rot of sugarcane, root rot of maize, etc. Even after crop harvest, B. subtilis populations persist and remain effective in controlling pathogens in fields applied with BASH.

SHELF LIFE: 1 Year
DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Seed treatment: Prepare slurry by mixing 5 to 10 grams of BASH in 25 ml of water and use this to coat 1kg of seeds. The coated seeds are to be dried in shade for 30 minutes before sowing them in the field. Before transplanting: Mix well BASH at the rate of 10 grams per liter of water and dip the roots of seedlings for 15-30 minutes before transplanting them in the field. Nursery bed treatment: Mix well BASH in water at rate of 250 grams in 50 liters of water and soil drench to cover the nursery area of500 square meters (1.25 cents).

Bulb or tuber treatment: Prepare slurry by mixing 5 to 10 grams of BASH in 25 ml of water and soak bulb or tubers for 15 to 60 minutes before sowing or planting. If BASH treated bulbs and tuber are dried in a cool place under shade for an hour before sowing, the performance of BASH against pathogens is improved dramatically.


3).Monas (Pseudomonas fluorescens 0.5 % W.P.)

A Broad Spectrum Biological and Organic Fungicide Produced in Technical Collaboration with Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore

ROLE OF MONAS

Pseudomanas fluorescens is a common non-pathogenic saprophyte that is normally found growing on organic material in soil, water and on plant surfaces. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. P. fluorescens has multiple flagella. It produces a soluble greenish fluorescent pigment. P. fluorescens in MONAS possesses biocontrol properties and protects roots of treated plant species against parasitic fungi such as Fusarium or Pythium as well as some phytophagous nematodes. This bacterium induces systemic resistance in the host plant and helps plants to resist attack by pathogens. It also competes with other pathogenic soil microbes. Pseudomanas fluorescens in MONAS produces siderophores and gives a competitive advantage at scavenging for iron. It also produces antibiotic compounds such as phenazine-type antibiotics or hydrogen cyanide that are antagonistic to other soil microbes. Specifically, P. fluorescens produces secondary metabolite 2, 4 - diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), the compound found responsible for anti phytopathegenic and biocontrol properties in these strains. It suppresses plant diseases by protecting the seeds and roots from fungal infections. It controls effectively soil borne pathogens like Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium species and many nematodes. It induces systemic resistance in plants against pathogens. MONAS effectively controls blast and bacterial leaf blight in rice and ragi, damping-off in chillies, Panama wilt of banana, wilt of chickpea and tomato, seedling rot and dry rot in black gram, root rot of sesamum, late leaf spot and rust of groundnut, red rot and damping-off in sugarcane, etc.
Talc based formulated product is compatible with Biofertilizers. It is not harmful to the earthworm and other beneficial organisms living in the soil. MONAS promotes plant growth and enhances the yield potential and overall quality of the produce in many crops.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE

Seed treatment: Prepare slurry by mixing 5 to 10 grams of MONAS in 25-50 ml of water and use this to coat 1kg of seeds. The coated seeds are to be dried in shade for 30 minutes before sowing them in the field. Alternatively for paddy, ragi and other crops, leave treated seeds in small quantity of water over night. Depending on the crops, either directly sow the treated seeds or allow the seed to sprout for 24 hours and then sow. For most crops, MONAS treatment gives effective protection against pathogens.

Before transplanting: Mix well MONAS at the rate of 10 grams per liter water and dip the roots of seedlings for 15-30 minutes before transplanting them in the field.

Nursery bed treatment: Mix well MONAS in water at rate of 250 grams in 50 liters of water and soil drench to cover entirely the nursery area of 500 square meters (1.25 cents).

Field application: Mix MONAS at the rate of 1 kg in 25 kg farm yard manure (FYM) and broadcast it in 4000 meters (one acre). If MONAS mixture is incubated with FYM for 7-days in a cool place under shade and covered with a wet jute bag before broadcast application, the performance of MONAS against Pathogens and nematodes is improved dramatically. As a result of using MONAS, farmers harvest high yield with better quality of produce.

Seedling root dipping: Apply 2.5 kg of MONAS in shallow water impounded in an area of 25 square meter. After pulling out from the nursery, keep seedlings in stagnated water containing MONAS for 30-60 minutes to coat roots; prolonged soaking will enhance the efficiency.

Soil application: Apply MONAS 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg of well decomposed farmyard manure (FYM) or sand and broadcast apply at 30 days after transplanting.

Foliar application: Spray MONAS by mixing in water at 25 grams per liter (and at l Kg /ha) commencing from 45 days after transplanting at 10 days interval for three times depending on the disease intensity. If there is no disease incidence, a single spray is sufficient.
MONAS can be used to control ragi blast, use seed treatment and foliar spray; for root rot and wilt diseases in cotton, groundnut, sesame, sunflower, safflower, redgram, greengram, blackgram follow seed treatment and soil application. MONAS use in horticultural crops: To control damping-off and other diseases, use MONAS as seed treatment and broadcast or foliar spray applications. Use seed treatment for damping off disease in tomato, chillies, bitter gourd, ash gourd, water melon and musk melon. For controlling cabbage and cauliflower club root disease follow seed treatment, soil application and seedling root dip with MONAS.
For control of banana wilt and anthracnose, tomato wilt, mango anthracnose - foliar spray with MONAS at 15 days interval after fruit setting. For banana follow sucker treatment use l0gm MONAS per sucker, soil application once at the time of planting and repeat it once every 3 months and a pinch capsule application at 50 mg MONAS per sucker apply once in 3 months from third month after planting; and bunch spray at 30 days interval.


4).Pacil (Pacilomyces lilacinus 1.0 % W.P.)

A broad spectrum biological and organic nematicide and pesticide produced in technical collaboration with Indian Institute of Horticulture, Bangalore

ROLE OF PACIL

Paecilomyces lilacinus in PACIL is a common soil inhabiting saprobic filamentous fungus. It grows profusely on organic matter present in soils. It has been isolated from a wide range of habitats including cultivated and uncultivated soils, forests, grasslands, desserts, estuarine sediments and sewage sludge from around the world. The species can grow at a wide range of temperatures - from 8°C to 43°C and is pH tolerant and can grow on a variety of substrates. P. lilacinus has shown promising results for use as a biocontrol agent to control the growth of destructive root knot nematodes.
As plant-parasitic nematodes cause significant economic losses to a wide variety of crops; chemical control is a widely used option for plant-parasitic nematode management. However, chemical nematicides are now being re-appraised in respect of environmental hazards, high costs and limited availability in many developing countries or their diminished effectiveness following repeated applications. PACIL can be an eco-friendly and organic alternative to use of chemicals for controlling nematodes and aphids and other insect
Field trials, glasshouse trials and in vitro testing of P. lilacinus in PACIL have shown effective presence of spores in soil, and control of nematodes and insect pests. Spores in PACIL are aggressive parasites. Paecilomyces present in PACIL has been widely tested under an International Project in 46 countries against a wide variety of nematodes affecting crop species. PACIL produces a serine protease enzyme with biological activity against nematode eggs and another chitinase enzyme that could weaken a nematode egg shell so as to enable a narrow infection peg to push through. Before infecting a nematode egg, P. lilacinus flattens against the egg surface and becomes closely appraised to it. When the hypha has penetrated the egg, it rapidly destroys the juvenile within, before growing out of the now empty egg shell to produce conidiophores and spores and to grow towards adjacent eggs.
PACIL protects crop plants right from sowing till harvest. Its spores from treated seeds move and get attached to adults and eggs of nematodes and infect and kill them and thus provide protection to plants. It completely destroys eggs and adults in soil and its spores remain in soil to provide sustained protection against nematodes. PACIL has been found to have no effect on other beneficial soil microorganisms but remains effective in the soil environment for a long time after application in infected nematodes and insect pests. PACIL causes 71% reduction in root galls and a 90% reduction in egg masses of nematodes. PACIL has out-performed chemical insecticide (carbofuran 3/5G) application. It is effective in protecting crops like tomato, potato, maize, chillies, okra or Ladies Finger, Capsicum, brinjal, onion, banana, vines, papaya, tuberose and many other plants from plant parasitic nematodes.

SHELF LIFE: 1 Year
DIRECTIONS OF USE

Seed treatment: Prepare slurry by mixing 5 to 10 grams of PACIL in 25 ml of water and use this to coat 1kg of seeds. The coated seeds are to be dried in shade for 30 minutes before sowing them in the field. Before transplanting seedlings: Mix well PACIL at the rate of 10 grams per liter of water and dip the roots of seedlings for 15-30 minutes before transplanting them in the field. Nursery bed treatment: Mix well PACIL in water at the rate of 250 grams in 50 liters of water and soil drench to cover entirely the nursery area of 500 square meters (1.25 cents).

Field application: Mix PACIL 1 kg in 25 kg farm yard manure (FYM) and broadcast it in 4000 meters (one acre). If PACIL mixture is incubated with FYM for 7-days in a cool place under shade and covered with a wet jute bag before broadcast application, the performance of PACIL against nematodes and insect pests is improved dramatically. As a result the treated crop grows luxuriantly to produce higher yields.